This study focuses on three aspects of evaluation: results of the advanced interventions in supporting the slum upgrading and disaster risk reduction for the targeted communities; the effectiveness of the specific interventions from the perspective of the communities and local governments; and the maintenance and utilization of infrastructures of PNPM Urban in the period of 2012-2015.
The study used a qualitative case study approach. The fieldwork was conducted in six kelurahan in Yogyakarta, Banjarmasin and Bima in February 2019. Bima is a flood-prone area and is particularly selected as a case for PRBBK intervention. To measure the results and the program’s effectiveness, the study employs a method that allows researchers to collect data about the residents’ perspectives and experiences. Qualitative data collection method (secondary data studies, transects, observation, interviews) are used to examine the tangible and intangible results of the slum neighborhood improvement program and disaster mitigation in the flood prone area as well as understanding the factors that influence these results.
The findings of the evaluation of slums upgrading program are positive. The study argues that the PLPBK program has addressed infrastructure issues in slum areas such as poor housing, poor neighborhood access, and lack of sanitation and drainage, while also promoting the intangible dimensions of strengthening social relations, integration with outsiders, and providing more livelihood options. Residents in upgraded area view that the program have improved basic infrastructure function and utilization. In the areas, stagnant water is reduced, roads access and connectivity are improved, housing is upgraded and (waste and air) pollution is reduced. Residents also tell stories of how the upgraded slums program have opened access to other parts of the city; about why they no longer feel ashamed about living in a slum area; about the increasing number of outsiders who come to have a walk or visit the area; about fewer rats and mosquitos, cleaner air, more business opportunities, and more spaces for social interactions.