This study is conducted to assess the results of Community-Based Neighborhood Upgrading Scheme (Penataan Lingkungan Permukiman Berbasis Komunitas, or PLPBK) in improving slum neighbourhood and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction (Pengurangan Risiko Bencana Berbasis Komunitas or PRBBK) in reducing flood risk. This study focuses on three aspects of evaluation: results of the advanced interventions in supporting the slum upgrading and disaster risk reduction for the targeted communities; the effectiveness of the specific interventions from the perspective of the communities and local governments; and the maintenance and utilization of infrastructures of PNPM Urban in the period of 2012-2015. The study used a qualitative case study approach. The fieldwork was conducted in six kelurahan in Yogyakarta, Banjarmasin and Bima in February 2019.
The findings of the evaluation of slums upgrading program are positive. The study argues that the PLPBK program has addressed infrastructure issues in slum areas such as poor housing, poor neighborhood access, and lack of sanitation and drainage, while also promoting the intangible dimensions of strengthening social relations, integration with outsiders, and providing more livelihood options. Infrastructure integration has enhanced the effects of slum upgrading program on the intangible dimensions of the residents’ lives. The study identifies four factors that influence better infrastructure integration process and implementation. These four factors are: PLPBK policy that facilitates integration; actors’ strategy and capacity in the socialization and planning process; conditions of collective action and trust in community; and the enabling policy environment that provides references to slum upgrading.
Unlike the positive effects of the PLPBK program in addressing slum issues, the study has found that PRBBK is not an effective approach in reducing flash-flood risks in Bima. In Bima, the small-flood risk is reduced and the neighborhood is also improved as a result of the provision of drainage and access roads. The program has also introduced residents with new knowledge in evacuation procedures and route. However, the program has limited effect in the residents’ building capacity and resilience to survive, adapt to, and recover from flood disasters in order to continue their lives. This requires improvement on the PRBBK framework and institutions so that they can establish a comprehensive measure to improve drainage management, build dams, reform governance, review land-use planning and the Governor’s policy.
This evaluation is also proposing a number of areas where the slum upgrading program can be improved to ensure the integration of infrastructure and its effect on tangible and intangible results. Among the points of recommendation, the study would like to propose that the program should maintain four policy requirements, namely (1) integration of infrastructures in one priority area; (2) actors’ capacity and strategy to be able to adapt the Ministry of Public Works and Housing’s upgrading standards) to the local context; (3) better participation and socialization strategy for the house upgrading project, and (4) reforming legal uncertainties; and (5) in the case of lack or the absence of social capital, facilitate all levels of collective actions among the residents, and between the residents and the outsiders.
The study is also concerned about the increasing prices of land and accommodation as a consequence of slum upgrading programs. The program is expected to find a measure to deal with this risk, as this rise of price will can potentially drive poor households and immigrants out of the upgraded area.