The study employs comprehensive method which combine macro and micro analysis as well as quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques.
In study sites, the research investigates results and institutions by utilizing a mixed-method approach. Data were collected through household survey (questionnaires) as well as observations and interviews in the provinces of West Sumatra, East Nusa Tenggara, and Southeast Sulawesi. Survey covered 488 household respondents in 8 treatment sites 9 control sites. Qualitative data were obtained primarily through observations and interviews with 374 informants in 12 villages―consisting of household users, village electricity operators, basic service providers such as local health care staffs and teachers and village government officers. We also interviewed 25 stakeholders in central and subnational government officials as well as contractors. In addition, public documents associated with off-grid governance were analyzed.
To complement micro analyses approaches, cost effectiveness analysis and social life cycle assessment were employed to analyze the economic and social performance of selected renewable energy microgrids from macro perspectives. This macro approach compares this renewable energy microgrids with conventional diesel-based electricity in Indonesia using cost composition data provided by the contractors of the installed microgrids and Social Hotspots Database (SHDB) respectively.